By William J. Hardcastle, Janet Mackenzie Beck
Through the international, there are phoneticians who've been stimulated by way of the instructing, examine, and writings of John Laver. Many have labored with him for my part, and many of the individuals to this ebook are individuals with whom he has had targeted hyperlinks or whose involvement represents an appreciation of the breadth of Laver's pursuits. whereas the e-book is intended to be a tribute to John Laver, the subjects were selected to supply an outline of a few key matters in phonetics, with illuminating contributions from one of the most influential lecturers within the box. Contributing to this festschrift are William Hardcastle, Janet Mackenzie Beck, Peter Ladefoged, John J. Ohala, F. Gibbon, Anne Cutler, Mirjam Broersma, Helen Fraser, Peter F. MacNeilage, Barbara L. Davis, R. E. Asher, E. L. Keane, G. J. Docherty, P. Foulkes, Janet Fletcher, Catherine Watson, John neighborhood, Ailbhe N? Chasaide, Christer Gobl, John H. Esling, Jimmy G. Harris, and Francis Nolan.
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Extra resources for A Figure of Speech: A Festschrift for John Laver
9 at the times indicated by the FIG. 9- Audio, lung volume, and EMG records from the external intercostals, internal intercostals, and rectus abdominis while producing two respiratory cycles followed by a lighter, deeper inspiration and 25 repetitions of the syllable [pa] at a quiet conversational level (adapted from Ladefoged & Loeb, 2002). 1. CONTROL OF SPEECH • 19 arrows. The external intercostals remain active for the first part of the utterance where there is a diminishing dotted line. The speech in this figure consists of repetitions of the single stressed syllable [ma].
The 'phonetic naturalness' requirement in phonological grammars should be reexamined and probably abandoned. The quest to find a representation of speech sounds that makes their behaviour self-evident goes back at least three centuries (Amman, 1694; Jespersen, 1889; Key, 1855) but has been most 23 24 • OHALA intense in the past three decades. Two approaches to "natural" rep resentation have been developed in parallel: one, the "mainstream" phonological one which employs discrete linguistic primitives and at the same time purports to represent the knowledge of the native speaker (Chomsky& Halle, 1968; Clements, 1985; Goldsmith, 1979; McCarthy, 1988) and another, phonetic models which are expressed with continuous physical primitives (Fant, I960; Fujimura, 1962; Ohala, 1976; Scully, 1990; Stevens, 1971; Westbury& Keating, 1985) but which do not pretend to reflect psychological structure.
1977). The weightings correspond to personal characteristics. 0 on both factors. FIG. 3- The mean tongue positions of five speakers of American English in the vowels in heed, hid, head, had, hod, hawed, hood. 12 • LADEFOGED It is difficult to see how these vowels can be considered as being well organized in an articulatory space. The mean tongue positions in the first four vowels can be said to have similar changes in tongue height, but the other four vowels have very different tongue shapes, both from each other and from the first four vowels.