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By Kaveh Hariri Asli; et al

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Sec–¹) or 340 (m. Sec–¹) for air. Injecting a small percentage of small air bubbles can lower the effective wave speed of the fluid/air mixture, provided it remains well mixed. This is difficult to achieve in practice, because diffusers may malfunction and air bubbles may come out of suspension and coalesce or even buoy to the top of pipes and accumulate at elbows, for example. In 1848, Helmholtz demonstrated that wave celerity in a pipeline varies with the elasticity of the pipeline walls. Thirty years later, Korteweg developed an equation to determine wave celerity as a function of pipeline elasticity and liquid compressibility.

The supply of the water to the system was realized with use of reservoir which enabled inlet pressure stabilization. The experiments were carried out for four cases: • simple positive water hammer for the straight pipeline of constant diameter; the measured characteristics were the basis for estimation the influence of the diameter change and local leak on water hammer run. A Numerical Exploration of Transient Decay Mechanisms 21 • positive water hammer in pipeline with single change of diameter: contraction and extension.

7) The characteristic wave celerity (a) is the speed with which a disturbance moves through a fluid. Sec–¹) or 1,438 (m. sec–¹) or 340 (m. Sec–¹) for air. Injecting a small percentage of small air bubbles can lower the effective wave speed of the fluid/air mixture, provided it remains well mixed. This is difficult to achieve in practice, because diffusers may malfunction and air bubbles may come out of suspension and coalesce or even buoy to the top of pipes and accumulate at elbows, for example.

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