Download African Cherokees in Indian Territory: From Chattel to by Celia E. Naylor PDF

By Celia E. Naylor

Forcibly faraway from their houses within the past due 1830s, Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, and Chickasaw Indians introduced their African-descended slaves with them alongside the path of Tears and resettled in Indian Territory, present-day Oklahoma. Celia E. Naylor vividly charts the stories of enslaved and loose African Cherokees from the path of Tears to Oklahoma's access into the Union in 1907. conscientiously extracting the voices of former slaves from interviews and mining a number assets in Oklahoma, she creates a fascinating narrative of the composite lives of African Cherokees. Naylor explores how slaves hooked up with Indian groups not just via Indian customs--language, garments, and food--but additionally via bonds of kinship.

Examining this tricky and emotionally charged historical past, Naylor demonstrates that the "red over black" dating was once not more benign than "white over black." She provides new angles to standard understandings of slave resistance and counters past romanticized rules of slavery within the Cherokee state. She additionally demanding situations modern racial and cultural conceptions of African-descended humans within the usa. Naylor unearths how black Cherokee identities developed reflecting advanced notions approximately race, tradition, "blood," kinship, and nationality. certainly, Cherokee freedpeople's fight for acceptance and equivalent rights that begun within the 19th century maintains even at the present time in Oklahoma.

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Additional resources for African Cherokees in Indian Territory: From Chattel to Citizens

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Most members of these nations were unwilling to move to what would become Indian Territory. Furthermore, they recognized that other Indians, specifically the Siouan-speaking groups like the Quapaws, Osages, and Otos, already occupied the land in the eastern part of Indian Territory. Other Indians who lived in the western portion of Indian Territory were the Wichitas, the Caddos, and a variety of Plains Indians. The vehement objections of Indian nations to removal did not deter the United States from its goal of Indian relocation.

The unrest of these early years presented a long-awaited window of opportunity for enslaved African Cherokees; in spite of serious risks, some chose to run away. Articles and advertisements in the Cherokee Advocate expose some sense of the desperation enslaved African Cherokees felt to escape the shackles of bondage in the Cherokee Nation. However preoccupied Cherokee slave owners may have seemed during the 1840s, most enslaved African Cherokees soon discovered that runaway slaves were definitely not overlooked.

The penchant of enslaved African Cherokees for running away revealed not only the necessity of controlling the movements of enslaved people for the benefit of their owners but also the destabilizing e√ect of runaways on members of the Cherokee Nation and Cherokee society in general. Control over enslaved African Cherokees established some measure of order in the Cherokee Nation; conversely, disorderly ‘‘property’’ reflected and encouraged an unruly and ‘‘uncivilized’’ slaveholding society. The actions of runaways countered the hopes of Cherokee slave owners for order, as well as the desire for the submission of their enslaved property.

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