By Daniel Cohen
During this ebook, Daniel Cohen explores the connections among arguments and metaphors so much mentioned in philosophy, simply because philosophical discourse is either completely metaphorical and replete with argumentation. The metaphors we use for arguments, in addition to the methods we use metaphors as arguments and in arguments, presents the foundation for a tripartite theoretical framework for realizing and comparing arguments. There are logical, rhetorical, and dialectical dimensions to arguments, every one offering norms for behavior, vocabulary for assessment, and standards for fulfillment. In flip, the pointed out roles for arguments normally discourse could be utilized to metaphors, aiding to provide an explanation for what they suggest and the way they paintings. Cohen covers the character of arguments, their modes and constructions, and the foundations in their review. He additionally addresses the character of metaphors, their position in language and idea, and their connections to arguments, deciding upon and reconciling arguments' and metaphors' respective roles in philosophy.
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Extra info for Arguments and Metaphors in Philosophy
The failures that beset argunlents-as-proof are peculiar to that paradigm. They do not really apply to arguments-as-war. An arguer can lose her way, reach the wrong conclusion, or make illicit inferences in adversarial arguments, but these are failures only insofar as they "weaken" the argument and thereby contribute to defeat. Since, as a matter of empirical fact, red herrings, hasty generalizations, and other classical fallacies often do succeed in convincing the audience, they can actually help to win arguments - which is to say that they can strengthen arguments-as-war even as they weaken arguments-as-proof.
Wars need not end with a winner and a loser, because both sides might claim victory, when in fact both sides may have lost a great deal, and there is surely a counterpart for arguments. Of course, there are also great differences that might be offered as counterexamples or counterbalances to the value of this metaphor. Wars can be prevented by diplomatic efforts, so they represent a failure of diplomacy. Arguments are not always symptomatic of communicative failure. Often they are the expressly intended products of rational inquiry!
But arguments, too, must be conceptually high-profile for the mappings to be so readily available. The apparent counterexample, arguing with oneself, is addressed below, in chapter 4, and Part II. See also Perelnlan and Olbrechts-Tyteca 1969, §6- 10. 14. , ch. 1, parts 6 - 8. Argument is War . and War is Hell 49 15. In dialectical approaches to argumentation, the charge that a fallacy has been committed functions the same way. Ideally, "the charge of fallacy serves to extend the argument, not to cut off debate" (Johnson and Blair, 1977, p.